HIV is an abbreviation of human immunodeficiency virus, very harmful virus which directly affects the immunizing ability of our body. This virus takes place in one’s body from another – through blood to blood and unsound sexual relation. The pregnant women who are suffering from this fatal disease can also infect her baby during pregnancy, delivery and breast feeding. The last stage of HIV virus is known as AIDS.
HIV Virus is a small organism, which is responsible for the expansion of this infectious disease in the human body. Different kinds of viruses attack different areas of the body, as HIV affects the immune system badly and the capacity of the body to react against germs. HIV is also called retrovirus, containing RNA ribo nucleleic acid, which is changed into DNA during reproductive process of viruses by using all enzymatic material of the hosts’ cells.
There is another type of virus, which is placed under the sub group retrovirus, called lento viruses. This type of virus spread infection slowly and dire consequences appear after long period of infection (e.g.) feline immunodeficiency virus is found in cats, simian immunodeficiency virus in monkeys and other animals and in humans. All these viruses attack the immune system in a slow motion.
Structure, transmission of HIV:
Its diameter is 1/10,000 millimeter and its shape is like sphere. The outer layer is made of fatty molecules lipids called viral envelope. The transmission of HIV takes place through the blood, semen, vaginal fluid, resulted form unprotected sex. HIV is also transmitted through the used syringes, needles by infected persons as they also contain slightest quantity of blood, having HIV. The very path of entrance of HIV is the vein (injected drugs) lining of vagina, vulva, penis, anus, rectum, the mouth, all mucous membrane (eyes, inner side of nose) cuts and sores.
Sources of spread of HIV, Precautions:
The main sources of HIV are the blood, semen, vaginal fluid and breast milk. It is not spread through tears, blisters, fluids, urine, vomit and sweat.
Don’t have any sexual relation about whom you are not sure of HIV infection. The rate of spread of HIV in males is higher than females during sexual intercourse. Some persons suffered from some sexual diseases such as syphilis, genital herpes, Chlamydia infection gonorrhea, and bacterial vaginosis that are more sensitive and susceptible for HIV infection during sexual intercourse. Don’t use syringes of someone, contaminated with HIV. Don’t have ear piercing from a person who is patient of HIV.
Touching, talking living with HIV patient in same place is not harmful. There is no harm in using food utensils, towels or bedding of HIV patients. You can’t be affected by using swimming pools, hot tubs, drink, fountains, toilet seats, gym equipment, telephone which are in use of HIV patients. The embracing, kissing, spitting, sneezing, breathing and sweating of HIV patients are not infectious. Don’t avoid blood donation as if you are using new needle.
Symptoms and stages of HIV/AIDS:
In the early stage of HIV infection there are no prominent symptoms just some people suffer from fever after regular intervals, feeling headache, tiresome, swelling of lymph nodes. These symptoms are short period and vanish within a week to a month. This early stage of HIV patient has most capacity to spread, having great magnitude in sexual secretions. The most serious and harmful symptoms may not prominent for many years. In some people these symptoms are displayed within months while in some after 10 years.
Some symptoms are weight loss, sweat, dry cough, pneumonia, red, brown, pink purplish white spot on inner side of skin, mouth nose, eyelids throats, itching skin, diarrhea, persists more than week gradual loss of memorandum, depression. HIV infection leads towards final stage, AIDS, after the complete disability of immunizing cells, called CD4+ T cells. In a healthy person, HIV free infection human body consists of 800 to 1200 CD+ T cells per cubic millimeter while in an infected person these number of cells decreases rapidly, almost 200 per cubic millimeter. It is last stage of HIV disease when a patient can easily be attacked by many diseases such as cancer, infection of lungs intestinal tract, brain, eyes, and other organs.
The medicines which are commonly used in USA to inhibit the growth of HIV infection are saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, amprenavir, nelfinavir and lopinavir. Consult the doctor for regular check up and get awareness of AIDS/ HIV to save you from this fatal disease by preventions and precautions timely.